True Perpetrators

Acker, J. R. (2012/2013). The flipside injustice of wrongful convictions: When the guilty go free. Albany Law Review, 76, 1629-1712.

Baumgartner, F. R., Grigg, A., Ramirez, R., & Lucy, J. S. (Forthcoming, 2018). The mayhem of wrongful liberty: Documenting the crimes of true perpetrators in cases of wrongful incarceration. Albany Law Review, 81.

Conroy, J. & Warden, R. (2011). Special investigation: The high costs of wrongful convictions. Retrieved from

Trial Issues

Bakken, T. (2008). Truth and innocence procedures to free innocent persons: Beyond the adversarial system. University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, 41, 547.

Berry, S. M. (2003). Bad Lawyering-How Defense Attorneys Help Convict the Innocent. Northern Kentucky University Law Review, 30, 487.

Blume, J. H. (2008). The dilemma of the criminal defendant with a prior record—Lessons from the wrongfully convicted. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 5(3), 477-505.

Bowers, J. (2008). Punishing the innocent. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 156(5), 1117-1179.

Covey, R. D. (2009). Signaling and plea bargaining’s innocence problem. Washington and Lee Law Review, 66(1), 73-130.

D’Amato, A. (1989). The ultimate injustice: when a court misstates the facts. Cardozo L. Rev., 11, 1313.

Dervan, L. E. (2012). Bargained Justice: Plea-Bargaining’s Innocence Problem and the Bradys Safety-Value. Utah Law Review, 51.

Givelber, D. (1996). Meaningless acquittals, meaningful convictions: Do we reliably acquit the innocent. Rutgers Law Review., 49, 1317.

Givelber, D. (2000). Punishing protestations of innocence: Denying responsibility and its consequences. American Criminal Law Review , 37, 1363.

Givelber, D. (2009). Kalven and Zeisel in the twenty-first century: Is the jury still the defendant’s friend? In C. J. Ogletree, & A. Sarat (Eds.), When Law Fails: Making Sense of Miscarriages of Justice (pp. 140-162). NYU Press.

Givelber, D., & Farrell, A. (2008). Judges and juries: The defense case and differences in acquittal rates. Law & Social Inquiry, 33(1), 31-52.

Givelber, D., & Farrell, A. (2012). Not guilty: are the acquitted innocent? NYU Press.

Graham Jr, K. W. (2000). Evidence of innocence offered by the criminal defendant: Not so fast; response. University of Miami Law Review , 55, 1101.

Gross, S. R. (2011-2012). Pretrial incentives, post-conviction review, and sorting criminal prosecutions by guilt or innocence. New York Law School Law Review, 56(3), 1009-1030.

Heath, W. P. (2009). Arresting and convicting the innocent: the potential role of an “inappropriate” emotional display in the accused. Behavioral sciences & the law, 27(3), 313-332.

Hessick, F. A. (2002). Plea bargaining and convicting the innocent: The role of the prosecutor, the defense counsel, and the judge. Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law, 16(2), 189-242.

Leipold, A. D. (1999). The problem of the innocent, acquitted defendant. Northwestern University Law Review, 94, 1297.

Leipold, A. D. (2005). How the Pretrial Process Contributes to Wrongful Convictions. American Criminal Law Review, 42, 1123.

Miller, C. (2008). Ordeal by innocence: Why there should be a wrongful incarceration/execution exception to attorney-client confidentiality. Northwestern University Law Review Colloquy, 102, 391-405.

Redlich, A. D., & Özdoğru, A. A. (2009). Alford pleas in the age of innocence. Behavioral sciences & the law, 27(3), 467-488.

Risinger, D. M. (2004). Unsafe verdicts: The need for reformed standards for the trial and review of factual innocence claims. Houston Law Review , 41, 1281.

Scott, R. E., & Stuntz, W. J. (1991). A Reply: Imperfect bargains, imperfect trials, and innocent defendants. Yale Law Review, 101, 2011.

Seidmann, D. J., & Stein, A. (2000). The right to silence helps the innocent: A game-theoretic analysis of the Fifth Amendment privilege. Harvard Law Review, 430-510.

Swafford, T. L. (1994). Responding to Herrera v. Collins: Ensuring That Innocents Are Not Executed. Case W. Res. L. Rev., 45(2), 603-639.

Volokh, A. (1997). N guilty men. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 146(1), 173-216.

Wright, R. F. (2005). Trial distortion and the end of innocence in federal criminal justice. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 154(1), 79-156.